Friday, May 22, 2020
Reduction of STDs and HIV in Adolescent Women An Analysis of the Reduction Program: Sisters Saving Sisters Ashley Reid CPH 330: Human Sexuality Dr. Mary Koss THE PROBLEM The aim of the intervention program Sisters Saving Sisters (SSS) is to help prevent and reduce HIV and other STDs rates in young African American and Hispanic women. Sisters Saving Sisters aims to reduce the overall number of sexual partners adolescent women have to decrease their risk of contracting HIV or other STDs. Currently 1 in 4 cases of HIV/AIDS in the United States are in women. (HIV/AIDS | womenshealth.gov, 2016) HIV disproportionately affects African American and Hispanic women compared to women of other races. (Women | Gender | HIV By Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC, 2016) In 2013 it was estimated that 61% of women infected with HIV were African American and 17% were Hispanic. (Women | Gender | HIV By Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC, 2016) HIV also significantly affects youth in the United States and in 2014 ages 13-24 accounted for 22% of new HIV diagnoses. (HIV Among Youth | Age | HIV By Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC, 2016) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is serious public health problem worldwide. HIV weakens a personÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system by infecting the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s T cells. (About HIV/AIDS | HIV Basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC, 2016) HIV also attacks and kills CD4 white blood cells, which play an important role in protecting the body from infections. (Immune System 101, 2016)Show MoreRelatedHIV/STD: Health Promotion Strategies Essay947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin patients well-being. HIV/STD is a prevalent pandemic that affects thousands of people in Europe, Africa, and United States. More than 15 million sexually transmitted disease occur in the United States (CITE CDC). Doctors and various health professionals have sought after the prevention of HIV/STD, but health professionals have come to a conclusion stating that health promotion is the best way to beat the pandemic with the help of patients. Ã¢â¬Å"Rates of curable STDs in the United States, the highestRead MoreStd Essay931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistorically Black Colleges and Universities due to less consideration given to the risk associated with having intercourse. This is mainly caused by a lack of awareness in regard to STDs and their transmission, with the most prevalent cases involving HIV and AIDS. The problem lies within societal and cultural risks. Students at HBCUs tend to have unprotected sex and often times not tell their partners if they are carrying a disease because they are either afraid t o confront the reality of the situationRead MoreSexually Transmitted Diseases ( Std ) Is Not Specific For One Disease?1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTransmitted Diseases (STD) is not specific for one disease but more than 25 infectious organisms that are transmitted from person to person by sexual intercourse. STDs are almost always transmitted by anal or vaginal intercourse, and oral sex (generally less efficiently). Some STDs are also transmitted through contaminated drug equipment, pretty common among drug users. Since 1980, eight new sexually transmitted pathogens have been recognized in the United States. STDs may cause serious, life-threateningRead MoreEssay On STD1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesillustrate and explain the positive uses of the physical examinations to decrease the mortality and morbidity rates from late stage STD diagnosis by utilizing appropriate therapies. STDs cause complications that can advance to Ã¢â¬Å"emotional suffering, including infertility, ectopic pregna ncy, cancer, and deathÃ¢â¬ (Ignatavicius, 2016). In 2017, CDC stated that the number of HIV diagnoses were 39,513 cases followed by a mortality rate of 6,721 cases (CDC, 2017). If screenings were thoroughly explained andRead MoreThe Center For Disease Control And Prevention1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe risk of getting HIV through sexual intercourse by more than 90% and by more than 70% among populations who inject drugs when taken regularly. Gay or bisexual men increase their chance of being exposed to the virus if they have had anal sex without a condom, been diagnosed with an STD during the past 6 months or are in a relationship with an HIV-positive partner. The 2014 HIV in the United States: At A Glance report states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ an estimated 44,073 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the UnitedRead MoreShould Prostitution Be A Legal Occupation? Essay1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestransmitted diseases, and drugs. Negative words like those cause a horrible stigma around the outlawed occupation, causing one to only see the downsides of the job. Through analyzing the benefits of decriminalizing prostitution one can see a reduce in STD rates across America, a decreased rate in drug-related and sex trafficking crimes, and new source of tax to help the country s debt. To begin, prostitution can be a very secretive and underground job, due to the prohibition on sex work. WorkersRead MoreEssay : How To Conceive Children1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy can hurt you and youre creating infant, contingent upon the kind of contamination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ HIV/AIDS: Thanks to the production of intense meds, transmission of HIV contamination to your baby is fundamentally diminished. Be that as it may, when the ailment is passed on, the outcomes are disastrous - the child may create HIV contamination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Herpes: Herpes disease in a pregnant lady is moderately protected until she prepares to deliver. Dynamic herpes soresRead MoreSexual Education : Teenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspecifically the body. STDs are diseases that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. These diseases include chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and HIV, which eventually leads to AIDS. Many of these STDs do not show symptoms for a long time, but they can still be harmful and passed on during sexual intercourse. You can get an STD by having sex with someone who has an STD. Anyone who is sexually active can get an STD. In some cases you donÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreThe Risks Of A Newborn Males1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave found there are some potential benefits to having newborn males circumcised as laid out in the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Circumcision Policy Statement released in 1999. A few potential benefits include the reduced risk of UTI, HIV and other STDs, and some penile cancers. In fact, more recently, the AAP has released a newer statement in 2012 saying these benefits now outweigh the risks and can justify access to the procedure should families choose to do so. However, there are many otherRead MoreThe Rate Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( Stds )1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Roger Park is relatively higher than other regions of Chicago. The rate of syphilis is the 7th highest in Rogers Park while the rate of HIV and AIDS cases is ranked 13th in the area. Rogers Park is among the top communities leading in death cases of HIV in the areas of Chicago. Furthermore, Rogers Park is ranked among the top communities in Chicago for the rates of Chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are the leading bacterial STDs. In this paper, an advanced practice
Friday, May 8, 2020
Popularized by websites like Amazon and eBay. Online shopping and the virtual store may be the future of all business. Online shoppers spent an estimated 126 billion in the U.S. alone in 2013. Seeing exponential growth in coming years, Many major retailers have already made efforts to set up online shops. Retail juggernauts like Walmart and Target have thrown their hats into the online arena with websites of their own. Many more entrepreneurs have begun creating entire businesses online. The reasons to take your company digital may be plentiful. As more of the world gains access to the internet even more markets become accessible. With the advent of drone technology and better delivery methods online sales and logistics are becoming easier and more cost efficient. Also online stores and warehouses require less manpower making them cheaper. But a major impact of this growth is the decline in recent years of big box retailers and subsequently the fall of The Mall. As more consumers choose to do their shopping online many retailers and shopping centers are being left behind. As the number of failing malls begin to rise and consumers choose in larger numbers to forgo the lines and do their shopping online, it is a trend that we predict will grow in importance and impact in the coming years. So in this paper we will discuss online retail and e-commerce as a whole. We will look at itÃ¢â¬â¢s history and current impact. Then we will make some predictionsShow MoreRelatedOnline Shopping And The Future Of All Business1936 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswebsites like Amazon and eBay. Online shopping and the virtual store may be the future of all business. Online shoppers spent an estimated 126 billion in the U.S. alone in 2013. Seeing exponential growth in coming years, Many major retailers have already made efforts to set up online shops. Retail juggernauts like Walmart and Target have thrown their hats into the online arena with websites of their own. Many more entrepreneu rs have begun creating entire businesses online. The reasons to takeRead MoreEffects Of Online Shopping For Brick And Mortar Stores906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Effects of Online Shopping for Brick-and-Mortar Stores Retail businesses and other small businesses have seen a huge drop in sales due to the convenience and simplicity of shopping online when and where the customer wants too. According to Market LineÃ¢â¬â¢s 2015 Industry Profile, Table 4 and Figure 4 show the expected percent of the retail sector value to grow 10.5% by the year 2019 and to reach a projection of 574.5 million dollars. (Market Line) The retail businesses and other small businessesRead MoreThe Future of Online Shopping1047 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe future of online shopping: Welcome to the matrix? Shopping online is about to blow up. Retailers of all types are increasing product offerings, adding in-store pickup, free shipping and testing social media. Its getting harder to tell pure play Internet retailers from the bricks and mortar shops with online portals, and all of them are reinventing how well shop online in the future (Heller, 2011). Whether it is by way of a mobile device, tablet computer, in-store kiosk or computer, theRead MoreDiffernce Between Online and Physical Shopping1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre As we know that online shopping is the easy way shopping but also there are certain advantages asRead MoreEvaluate How Future Changes in Economic, Political, Legal and Social Factors May Impact on the Strategy of a Chosen Organisation997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvaluate how future changes in economic, political, legal and social factors may impact on the strategy of a chosen organisation Changes in a number of different factors can affect the way in which the business is run in the future and this could mean that the business has to look into different ways of tackling problems, which would mean they have to forecast what they believe the future is going to be like. Tesco as an organisation is constantly expanding because of the amount of people who needRead MoreOnline Shopping versus Traditional Retail Store639 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOnline Shopping vs. Traditional Retail Store One of the most debatable decisions for most Americans during the sale event or holiday is whether to shop or not to shop. Especially, when considering that some of the online shopping websites such as Amazon and eBay are established. To shop online or to shop in the store has become a more practical question. I used to be a traditional shopper, but I changed my mind sometime over years since I found that shopping online is much cheaper and more convenientRead MoreImpact Of Online Shopping On Businesses1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat applies in Australian workforces. The issue is the impact of online shopping and what effects it has on businesses. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics, 43% of Australians use the internet to buy products and services . This states that the internet is changing consumer shopping habits fast, and most likely, forever. As reported by the National Retail Association, 50,000 people will lose their jobs due to internet shopping . These statistics wil l significantly affect the work place withRead MoreBackground. Today, People Are Engaging In E-Commerce More1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesareas of business including retail, services, wholesaling and manufacturing. The growing acceptance of the Internet and e-commerce in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s changed the way people shopped, shifting consumer preference from traditional to online shopping. With the introduction of personal electronic devices and more readily available wireless internet, AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s customer membership continues to grow. As online retailers continue to experience high demand among American consumers, small business owners areRead MoreAmazon s Major Competitors Are Divided1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages C. Shawn and Peilan AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s major competitors are divided in two parts. The first part is physical stores such as Walmart or Target. The second area of competition is through the online market eg; EBay and BestBuy. As opposed to Amazon, customers in a physical store could have more comprehensive experience, especially for specific products like clothes and electronic devices. Some customers need to be able to see and try the product themselves before feeling comfortable enoughRead MoreE Commerce : A Market Scale1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor other activities and it is not only tedious but time consuming to go out shopping in physical stores. In a market scale this could be an astounding figure providing enormous market space. E-business can be used interchangeably with the term E-commerce with occasional use of the term e-tail to refer to online retailing activities. In a retail interest shopping carts are normally established upon which customer shopping habits and preferences can be monitored although some entrepreneurs using the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Communication There are other types of communication that are beyond the four basic types: face-to-face communication, spoken communications that is transmitted electronically, personally addressed written communication, and impersonal written communication. There is also visual communication. Visual communication is visual display of information, like maps, photos, signs, symbols and designs. We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Modes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Television and video clips are the electronic form of visual communication. An employee that has performed in an outstanding, above-the-call manner would be given a face to face meeting, which may include a company-wide email or a public presentation to show appreciation. Face to face communication will project the sincerity and honesty of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s hard work. They will be able to visualize the verbal and non-verbal cues of the manager. The public presentation of appreciation would also show other employees how hard work is rewarded in the workplace, and be a motivator for high production; including a more cohesive feeling of teamwork throughout the company. The use of a company-wide email would allow other employees to see that hard work can be rewarded by public recognition. In order to capture the attention of the employees receiving the email the salutation of Ã¢â¬Å"Dear Company XYZ Team Member,Ã¢â¬ to give it a more personal and endearing feel. The most effective method to communicate a new policy on the use of cell phones would be impersonal written communication. The down-side of using this type of communication is that since it is not personally addressed to the receiver they may not read the email. If the employee does not read the email and is in violation of the new cell phone policy; it is ultimately the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to stay current on new policies and procedures instituted within the company. In the event that an employee is found violating the new policy a face-to-face meeting would occur. This would include at the least a verbal reprimand or according to company policies the level of reprimand that is required. An employee that is repeatedly late for work always requires a face-to-face eeting. There is no other form of communication that is effective in this situation. The employee must be able to see the verbal and non-verbal cues of the manager conveying the seriousness of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s employment. The manager should find out what is the root cause of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s non-compliance with the attendance policy. The employee could be having timing issues with a babysitter; the employee could be oversleeping due to a second job, or not leav ing home in time to allow for potential traffic issues. The manager would be required to reprimand the employee according to company policy, which could be an oral warning up to and including termination, depending on the magnitude of the attendance policy violation. An employee that has a child that has been injured should always communicate face-to-face. The manager should go to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s workspace and ask him/her to come with them to their office or other private space. This cannot be communicated over the phone; even if the manager is off-site they should call and appoint another member of the management team to convey the message to this employee. References Batson, T. R. , Neff, B. J. (2007). Business ethics: Sunday ethics Ã¢â¬â Monday world. Marion, Ind. : Triangle Publishing. R, A. (n. d. ). Four Types of Communication. Buzzle. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from http://www. buzzle. com/articles/four-types-of-communication. html How to cite Communication Modes, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Racism and the Ku Klux Klan Since the early development of society in the United States, racism has always been a divisive issue faced by communities on a political level. Our country was built from the immigration of people from an international array of backgrounds. However, multitudes of white supremacists blame their personal as well as economic misfortunes on an abundance of ethnic groups. African-Americans, Jews and Catholics are only some of the of groups tormented by these white supremacists. As the amount of ethnic diversity gradually increased in the political systems of Louisiana and the United States, organizations rapidly formed to challenge the new ethnic variation in government. The Ku Klux Klan is one of these groups that were formed by people who were angered by the increase of diversity in political office and in the workplace. Local and state officials that were members of the Klan aided in providing influence, money, and information to the racist organization. As the civil rights movement became accepted, it seemed as if the power of racist organizations deteriorated. However, with the Klan demanding freedom of speech, with political figures related to the Ku Klux Klan still bringing prejudice to politics throughout the country, and with multitudes of African-American churches being burned to the ground, it seems as if the Ku Klux Klan is still a threat to the citizens of this country. The Ku Klux Klan has played a major role in United States history. As the south was undergoing the era of Reconstruction after the Civil War, the votes of newly emancipated black Southerners put the Republicans in power throughout the state. White Southerners resorted to brute force to preserve the white supremacy they once had. The Klan was originally arranged into secret societies that terrorized local white and black Republican leaders. They also threatened all African Americans who violated the old ideas of black inferiority. Sworn to secrecy, its members wore white robes and masks and adopted the burning cross as their symbol. The Klan members seemed to be most active during election campaigns, when they would either scare people into voting for their candidate or get rid their opponents entirely. They were noticed for their horrible acts of violence that they called nighttime rides. These attacks included murder, rape, beatings, and warnings and were designed to overcome Republican majorities in the south. Due to the fear of a race war, state officials were unable to suppress the violence. Law enforcement officials were Klan members themselves and even when the law officers were legitimate, Klan members also sat on juries where criminally accused members were often acquitted.(Harrel,47-52) The Klan was popularized through literature and film in the early nineteenth century. Its influence spread with help from Thomas B. Dixon's The Clansman (1905) and D.W. Griffith's movie The Birth of a Nation (1915). (Harrel, 85) Harrel felt that this eventually "led to the establishment of a new Ku Klux Klan, which spread throughout the nation and preached anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, anti-black, antisocialist, and anti-labor-union Americanism" (87). Harrel stated that the Klan's two million adherents exercised great political power, "often taking the law into their own hands, mobs of white-robed, white-hooded men punished immorality and terrorized un-American elements" (88). The Klan erupted as a secret organization employing its secrecy to mislead the public and inquiring newspapers. Therefore, they were labeled the invisible empire. Harrel urges the idea that in certain regions the Klan did not have enough influence to become politically triumphant (307). "But where it was strong the Invisible Empire elected scores of local officials, state legislators, a few governors, several national representatives, including Earle B. Mayfield of Texas, William J. Harris of Georgia, and Hugo Black of Alabama, to the United States Senate." (Harrel, 307) The Klan was extremely hungry for political gain. The best way to promote the growth of an organization of this sort would be the expansion of a network with prominent political and investment resources. "The limitation of immigration, maintenance of national prohibition, restriction of the political influence of the Catholic Church and minority groups, clean government, and maintenance of community morals, were goals which violence and intimidation alone could not achieve." (Harrel, 305) It is seemed necessary that in order to have a prosperous organization, the Klan would
Thursday, March 19, 2020
"The Creation" by James Weldon Johnson is poetry about God almighty created what we know as life. As, God stepped out onto space he said he was "lonely". Next, he said to himself that he would make him a world. So, god started putting the pieces together to make his perfect world. Secondly, God smiled then light appeared. Then, God reached out and grabbed the light and rolled it up in his hand until he made the sun. "After he sent the sun to the heavens, the light that was remaining he gathered into a ball, and threw it at the darkness and made night with moon and stars." Next, "God created many things such as lightning, thunder, rain, grass, flowers, rivers, sea, birds, beasts, forests, and woods." After all of Gods creation he was still lonely in his New World. So, God decided to create man. Then, he sat down and scooped up some clay and shaped it in his own image. Next, he blew his breath of life onto the clay and man became a living thing soul. We all know that the book of "Genesis" is the first sign of creation and it also describes the creation of the world like the poem by James Weldon Johnson. Basically, it's the same, but a little different. The only things that are different to me is that god was more vocal in the book of "Genesis". When God wanted something or he wanted something to happen he just spoke upon it. For example, when he said "let there be light", and there was light. And in the poem by James Weldon Johnson the lord seem to do everything by hand.... Free Essays on Creation Free Essays on Creation "The Creation" by James Weldon Johnson is poetry about God almighty created what we know as life. As, God stepped out onto space he said he was "lonely". Next, he said to himself that he would make him a world. So, god started putting the pieces together to make his perfect world. Secondly, God smiled then light appeared. Then, God reached out and grabbed the light and rolled it up in his hand until he made the sun. "After he sent the sun to the heavens, the light that was remaining he gathered into a ball, and threw it at the darkness and made night with moon and stars." Next, "God created many things such as lightning, thunder, rain, grass, flowers, rivers, sea, birds, beasts, forests, and woods." After all of Gods creation he was still lonely in his New World. So, God decided to create man. Then, he sat down and scooped up some clay and shaped it in his own image. Next, he blew his breath of life onto the clay and man became a living thing soul. We all know that the book of "Genesis" is the first sign of creation and it also describes the creation of the world like the poem by James Weldon Johnson. Basically, it's the same, but a little different. The only things that are different to me is that god was more vocal in the book of "Genesis". When God wanted something or he wanted something to happen he just spoke upon it. For example, when he said "let there be light", and there was light. And in the poem by James Weldon Johnson the lord seem to do everything by hand.... Free Essays on Creation Outline Title: Creation vs. Evolution or Scientific Creation Thesis: Creation vs. Evolution has been a hot topic with society for centuries. Just recently, in the mid-1980Ã¢â¬â¢s an new kid came on the block, Scientific Creation. Purpose: The following will show the main ideas of Creation, Evolution, and Scientific Creation. I will also show why I believe in Creation and what aspects of Evolution and Scientific Creation help me to confirm this belief. Creation vs. Evolution or Scientific Creation The cosmos, whether you believe in Creation, Evolution, or Scientific Creation is a very interesting subject. Creation, as documented in the Bible in Genesis 1:1 states that Ã¢â¬Å"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.Ã¢â¬ It shows that God created the universe and all living things out of love, in a particular order, and with a particular purpose. Evolution portrays the origin of life as starting out with the Ã¢â¬Å"big bangÃ¢â¬ . The collision of two atmospheres, b oth atmospheres having the ability to create life as we know it. Scientific Creation is not based on Genesis or any religious teaching. Scientific Creation is based on the scientific data, which supports Creation. According to Henry M. Morris, the difference between Scientific Creation and Biblical Creation is Ã¢â¬Å"the first is based solely on scientific evidence, from such sciences as genetics, geology, thermodynamics and paleontology; the second is based on Biblical teachings.Ã¢â¬ In examining the above beliefs, Creation, Evolution and Scientific Creation, I view Scientific Creation as an attempt to make a lateral connection between Evolution and Creation. The theory that all living creatures came out of the Ã¢â¬Å"big bangÃ¢â¬ (according to Evolution) is too far of a stretch to the imagination for me. If all animals, insects and human beings were created due this collision and through an evolutionary process, then one would think that we would all be related genetically. Where does o... Free Essays on Creation A Comparison of the Creation Stories of Hindu, Greek, and Norse Mythology There are many different creation stories from around the world. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to describe three stories from different beliefs. The first is the story of the Hindu religion. Then IÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you about the Greek myths. The Norse myths are also very interesting. They all have different creation stories, but share same elements. The Hindu religion is a very interesting one, and its creation story only makes it more so. According to the Rig-Veda, creation begins in a state of hollow darkness; nothingness does not even exist. There is only one, one who breathes without air, and lives without tangible nourishment. He is Brahman, Ã¢â¬Å"that one,Ã¢â¬ and he is the essence of all beings. Desire came to him to produce new creatures, and he wanted to make them out of his own body. He created the waters, put his seed in them, and the seed swelled into a golden egg from which he himself was born. The upper half of the seed became the heavens, and the lower half became the earth. That is how the Hindu beginning began. In Judaism, creation begins with God. He alone created the heaven and earth. The earth was like that of the Hindus, a dark, shapeless void. Then God created light, which he separated from the dark, and from these he created day and night. He then made a firmament that he named Heaven. He brought dry land, fruitful plants, and two great lights to rule over day and night. He then brought forth moving creatures of land and sea. Finally, he made man in his own image to rule over the beasts. That is how the Genesis tells of this beginning....
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Five Theories on the Origins of Language What was the first language? How did language begin- where and when? Until recently, a sensible linguist would likely respond to such questions with a shrug and a sigh. As Bernard Campbell states flatly in Humankind Emerging (Allyn Bacon, 2005), We simply do not know, and never will, how or when language began. Its hard to imagine a cultural phenomenon thats more important than the development of language. And yet no human attribute offers less conclusive evidence regarding its origins. The mystery, says Christine Kenneally in her book The First Word, lies in the nature of the spoken word: For all its power to wound and seduce, speech is our most ephemeral creation; it is little more than air. It exits the body as a series of puffs and dissipates quickly into the atmosphere... There are no verbs preserved in amber, no ossified nouns, and no prehistorical shrieks forever spread-eagled in the lava that took them by surprise. The absence of such evidence certainly hasnt discouraged speculation about the origins of language. Over the centuries, many theories have been put forward- and just about all of them have been challenged, discounted, and often ridiculed. Each theory accounts for only a small part of what we know about language. Here, identified by their disparaging nicknames, are five of the oldest and most common theories of how language began. The Bow-Wow Theory According to this theory, language began when our ancestors started imitating the natural sounds around them. The first speech was onomatopoeic- marked by echoic words such as moo, meow, splash, cuckoo, and bang.Ã Whats wrong with this theory?Relatively few words are onomatopoeic, and these words vary from one language to another. For instance, a dogs bark is heard as au au in Brazil, ham ham in Albania, and wang, wang in China. In addition, many onomatopoeic words are of recent origin, and not all are derived from natural sounds. The Ding-Dong Theory This theory, favored by Plato and Pythagoras, maintains that speech arose in response to the essential qualities of objects in the environment. The original sounds people made were supposedly in harmony with the world around them. Whats wrong with this theory?Apart from some rare instances of sound symbolism, theres no persuasive evidence, in any language, of an innate connection between sound and meaning. The La-La Theory The Danish linguist Otto Jespersen suggested that language may have developed from sounds associated with love, play, and (especially) song. Whats wrong with this theory?As David Crystal notes in How Language Works (Penguin, 2005), this theory still fails to account for the gap between the emotional and the rational aspects of speech expression. The Pooh-Pooh Theory This theory holds that speech began with interjections- spontaneous cries of pain (Ouch!), surprise (Oh!), and other emotions (Yabba dabba do!). Whats wrong with this theory?No language contains very many interjections, and, Crystal points out, the clicks, intakes of breath, and other noises which are used in this way bear little relationship to the vowels and consonants found in phonology. The Yo-He-Ho Theory According to this theory, language evolved from the grunts, groans, and snorts evoked by heavy physical labor. Whats wrong with this theory?Though this notion may account for some of the rhythmic features of the language, it doesnt go very far in explaining where words come from. As Peter Farb says in Word Play: What Happens When People Talk (Vintage, 1993): All these speculations have serious flaws, and none can withstand the close scrutiny of present knowledge about the structure of language and about the evolution of our species. But does this mean that all questions about the origin of language are unanswerable? Not necessarily. Over the past 20 years, scholars from such diverse fields as genetics, anthropology, and cognitive science have been engaged, as Kenneally says, in a cross-discipline, multidimensional treasure hunt to find out how language began. It is, she says, the hardest problem in science today. In a future article, well consider more recent theories about the origins and development of language- what William James called the most imperfect and expensive means yet discovered for communicating a thought.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Criminal Justice - Essay Example Prior to the arrest, a magistrate who has no interest in the case has to have given permission for the warrant to be issued. This ensures that the arrest is supported on a legal foundation. The next step after the arrest is booking the suspect. In this process, the individual is fingerprinted, photographed, and expected to provide personal information. In cases where th charges include the abuse of alcoholic substances, the suspect can be allowed to enroll in a suitable diversionary program like that of alcohol rehabilitation (Spano, Freilich, & Bolland, 2008). In such cases, the suspect has to abide by the regulations of the program or continue to the following criminal justice system stage for the continuation of the process of booking. After booking, the suspected person will be given a definite date on which he or she I scheduled to appear before a judge in court. Usually, this will happen in a couple of hours after the arrest. During this process, the suspect is informed of his or her right to be released, prior to the trial date, on his or her individual recognizance. A suspect could also be released when he or she posts bail. It is up to the judge to determine the amount that will be requested in the bail. This decision is often based on the brutality of the crime as well as the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s potential to escape. The judge also considers the criminal background of the suspect before deciding on the amount for bail. In cases where bail is posted, the suspect will be required to provide the court with his or her passport. In the next stage, there is an arraignment hearing in which a judge will determine if a crime was actually carried out and if the accused person could be responsible for it. If it is found that the accused could have committed the crime, there will be an indictment (Spano, Freilich, & Bolland, 2008). On his or her next arraignment in court, the suspect has to enter a no contest, guilty, or not guilty plea. In cases where